Dr. Lloyd Kramer is a professor in the Department of History at the University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill and the Faculty Director of UNC’s Program in the Humanities and Human Values. His interests focus on Modern European History with an emphasis on nineteenth-century France. He is particularly interested in historical processes that shape cultural identities, including the experiences of cross-cultural exchange and the emergence of modern nationalism. Other research and teaching interests deal with the roles of intellectuals in modern societies and the theoretical foundations of historical knowledge. His teaching stresses the importance of reading, discussing, and writing about influential books in various eras of European history and world history. One recurring theme in all of his research and teaching stresses the importance of cross-cultural exchanges in modern world history.